• Thu. Jan 28th, 2021

Hello readers, today we are with a special set of geography notes of Indian climates for UPSC CDS exam & other governmental exams like SSC & railway. This set of notes are specially designed to increase your marks by a margin of 4-5 marks.

 INDIA’S Climate 

Basically, India has tropical monsoon type of climate.

In India, the year can be divided into four seasons, resulting from the monsoons which occur mainly due to the differential heating of land and movement of the sun‘s vertical rays. The highest temperature experienced in South is in April while in North it is in May and June. ‘Cherry Blossoms’ are there in Karnataka, beneficial to coffee plantation and ‘Mango showers’ in elsewhere South India, which are beneficial to
mango crops.
The south – west monsoon enters the country in two currents, one blowing over the Bay of Bengal and the other over the Arabian Sea. This monsoon causes rainfall over most of the country (except Tamil Nadu and Thar Desert area).
The Bay of Bengal branch after crossing the deltaic region enters the Khasi valley in Meghalaya and gets entrapped in it due to funnel shape of the region. It strikes Cherrapunji in a perpendicular direction causing heavies rainfall in Mausryam
(Approx. 1400 cm). From mid-Sept to mid-Dec, the monsoon retreats. As the sun‘s vertical rays start shifting towards the Tropic of Capricorn, the low pressure area starts moving south and winds finally start blowing from land to sea. This is called north-east monsoon. The withdrawal of monsoon is a much more gradual process than its onset. It causes rainfall in Tamil Nadu as the winds pick some moisture from Bay of Bengal. This
explains the phenomenon why Tamil Nadu remains dry when the entire country receives rain and why it gets rain when practically the entire country is dry.


India can be divided into a number of climatic regions.

Tropical Rain Forests in India : Found in the west coastal plains, the Western Ghats and parts of Assam. Characterized by high temperatures throughout the year. Rainfall, though
seasonal, is heavy- about 200 cm annually during May-November.

Tropical Savanna Climate :

In most of the peninsula region except the semi-arid zone in the leeward side of the Western Ghats. It is characterized by long dry weather throughout winter and early summer and high temperature (above 18.2 Deg.c); annual rainfall varies from 76 cm in the west to 150 cm in the east.
Tropical Semi-Arid Steppe Climate : It prevails in the rain shadow belt running southward from Central Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu in the leeward side of the Western Ghats and the
Cardamom Hills. It is characterized by low rainfall which varies from 38 cm to 80 cm, high temperature between 20 and 30.
Tropical and Subtropical Steppes : Large areas in Punjab, Haryana and Kutch region. Temperature varies from 12-35 Deg. The maximum temperature reaches up to 49 Deg.c. The annual rainfall, varying from 30.5-63.5 cm, is also highly erratic.
Tropical desert : This climate extends over the western parts of Banner, Jaisalmer and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan and parts of Kutch. It is characterized by scanty rainfall (30.5 cm), which is highly erratic. Rains are mostly in the form of cloudburst. Mean monthly temperature is uniformly high (about 35c).
Humid Subtropical Climate with Dry Winters : This area includes south of the Himalayas, east of the tropical and subtropical steppes and north of tropical savannah. Winters are
mild to severe while summers are extremely hot. The annual rainfall varies from 63.5 cm to more than 254 cm, most of it received during the south west monsoon season.
Mountain Climate : Such type of climate is seen in mountainous regions which rise above 6,000 m or more such as the Himalayas and the Karakoram Range.
Factors Affecting India’s Climate Latitude: The Indian landmass is equally divided by The Tropic of Cancer. Hence, half of India has tropical climate and another half has subtropical climate.
Altitude: While the average elevation in the coastal areas is about 30 meter, the average elevation in the north is about 6,000 meter. The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the Indian subcontinent. Due to this, the subcontinent gets
comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia.
Pressure and Winds: The Indian subcontinent lies in the region of north-easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere. After that, these winds blow towards south. They get deflected to the right due to the Coriolis force and then move towards the low pressure area near the equator.

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